Breast cancer stands as the most prevalent cancer among women globally, ranking second in mortality. Although it is rarer, men too can fall prey to breast cancer. A significant 90% of these cases stem from milk duct tissue or lobules. The early detection of cancer greatly increases the chances of successful treatment.

Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer

  1. Age: The risk escalates for women over 50.
  2. Previous Diagnoses: A history of breast or ovarian cancer can increase the odds.
  3. Genetic Predispositions: A family history or mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes elevate risks.
  4. Hormonal Factors: Extended exposure to oestrogen can pose a threat.
  5. Lifestyle Influences: Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, alcohol consumption, and high radiation exposure also contribute.

Identifying Symptoms of Breast Cancer

Many women might be symptom-free, while others might experience non-cancerous abnormalities. However, these signs warrant a medical consultation:

  • Lumps in the breast or armpit
  • Nipple anomalies: dimpling, discharge, or ulceration
  • A breast rash resembling orange peel
  • Persistent breast pain

Screening Measures for Early Detection

  1. Self-examination
  2. Mammograms: Especially vital for women 40+ every 1-2 years.
  3. Ultrasound & MRI: Used if mammograms reveal anomalies.

Methods for Diagnosing Breast Cancer

After detecting a lump or calcium speck on an x-ray, physicians delve deeper:

  1. Diagnostic Radiology & Mammography
  2. Ultrasound and MRI
  3. Biopsy: The most accurate diagnostic measure.
  4. Supplementary Tests: Blood tests, chest x-rays, bone scans, and CT scans to gauge cancer's spread.

Crafting a Breast Cancer Treatment Plan

A comprehensive team, including surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists, evaluates factors like cancer cell characteristics, disease stage, patient's age, hormone receptors, menopausal status, and the HER2 gene presence.

Primary Treatment Options for Breast Cancer

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiotherapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Hormonal & Targeted Therapy