Acute bronchitis refers to the inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the trachea. This inflammation results in the enlargement and hyperactivity of the mucous glands, leading to a narrowing of the tracheal pathway. Consequently, this condition causes cough, secretion, and dyspnea.

Causes of Bronchitis

  1. Respiratory Tract Infections: Most commonly caused by viruses, similar to those responsible for the flu and influenza.
  2. Bacterial Infections: These can be due to various bacteria, such as:
    • Bordateria pertussis
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenzae
  3. Irritants: Includes:
    • Smoking
    • Air pollution
    • Dust
    • Chemical agents
  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Irritation from gastric enzymes in patients.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Mild fever, chills, and fatigue.
  • Coughing, which may start with little to no sputum but may increase over time.
  • Presence of sticky green or yellow sputum, indicating bacterial infection.

Treatment Options

  • Symptomatic Treatments: Such as antipyretic drugs for fever.
  • Cough Medications: This includes bronchodilators.
  • Mucolytic Agents: Recommended for patients with a significant amount of sputum.

Preventative Measures

  • Ensure ample bed rest and intake of warm fluids regularly.
  • Stay away from irritants, such as:
    • Smoking and tobacco smoke
    • Fumes and strong, irritating odours
    • Chemical agents
  • Keep away from cold and dry environments to reduce coughing.
  • Avoid direct air from appliances like air conditioners or electric fans.
  • Maintain body warmth.
  • Receive an annual flu vaccine.