The brain, which is the central organ of our body, not only controls our movements, sensations, and speech, but also guides our thoughts, emotions, intellect, and memories.

When the brain's health deteriorates, it can hinder different bodily functions and have a significant impact on a person's daily activities, work life, social interactions, and the people around them. Dementia refers to a decline in cognitive functions that is severe enough to disrupt everyday life.

What Causes Dementia?

Dementia's root causes vary and are often categorised as either treatable or untreatable.

Treatable Causes:

  • Hypothyroidism or vitamin B12 deficiencies.
  • Neurological conditions such as neurosyphilis or autoimmune disorders.
  • Hydrocephalus, brain tumours, or cerebral haemorrhages.
  • Depression, sometimes mimicking dementia symptoms, known as “pseudodementia.”
  • Adverse effects of certain regular medications.
  • Upon identifying any of these causes, tailored treatments are applied.

Untreatable Causes:

  • Alzheimer’s disease is the predominant cause of dementia.
  • Vascular dementia is another significant cause, albeit less common.

Alzheimer’s VS Age-Related Dementia

Distinguishing between natural age-related memory decline and the early stages of Alzheimer’s in older patients can be challenging. Hence, a neurologist's expertise is often sought for accurate diagnosis.

Identifying Common Symptoms of Dementia

Individuals with dementia might exhibit:

  • Repeatedly echoing statements or queries within short intervals.
  • Memory lapses about recent events.
  • Regularly misplacing items.
  • Often forgetting scheduled appointments.
  • Disorientation with familiar routes or surroundings.
  • Difficulty in articulating or frequent misuse of words.
  • Personality and mood shifts.
  • Inability to execute previously familiar tasks, like operating a TV remote or cooking.
  • Over time, these symptoms tend to intensify.

How is Dementia Diagnosed?

Diagnosis involves:

  • An exhaustive medical history review.
  • Neurological examinations.
  • Blood tests.
  • Neuropsychological assessments.
  • Advanced imaging like MRI or PET scans.

These evaluations are typically precise in pinpointing the dementia cause, be it medical, age-related, or depression-driven.

Treatment Approaches for Dementia


  • Addressing the root cause. While Alzheimer’s remains untreatable, palliative treatments, including medications, are available. The focus remains on enhancing life quality for both the affected individual and their family. Caregivers are encouraged to liaise with healthcare professionals for guidance on delivering optimal care.
  • Cognitive exercises or employing tools for brain stimulation.


  • Ensure sufficient sleep.
  • Maintain regular physical activity.
  • Consume a balanced diet.
  • Stay hydrated.
  • Engage socially with loved ones.