The four common eye conditions are myopia (nearsightedness), farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions can be addressed using different types of laser treatments.

1. Nearsightedness (Myopia)

Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is a prevalent eye condition where you can see objects that are near clearly, but distant objects appear blurred. This condition arises from a refractive error that causes light rays to focus just in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Correcting Nearsightedness

Options for correcting nearsightedness include:

  1. Eyeglasses: These are equipped with concave lenses that spread out light, aiding in correcting myopia.
  2. Contact Lenses: It's essential to maintain proper hygiene and care for contact lenses to avert corneal infections. Prolonged use of contact lenses may lead to complications like dry eyes, allergic conjunctivitis, and the degradation of skin cells around the eyes, eventually making it difficult for some individuals to continue wearing them.

Permanent Solutions for Nearsightedness

For a lasting resolution, nearsightedness can be treated through various vision correction surgeries such as ZEISS SMILE, Femto LASIK, and PRK.

Preventing Nearsightedness

To diminish the risk of developing nearsightedness, consider modifying certain lifestyle habits:

  • Limit activities that require close focus, like watching TV, playing video games, or reading.
  • Engage in outdoor activities for approximately two hours daily, like playing sports or walking.
  • Maintain a healthy distance from your eyes to the object during near-work activities. For instance, keep books or tablets at least an arm's length away.
  • Practise the 20/20/20 rule during prolonged near-work tasks: every 20 minutes, rest your eyes by looking at something about 20 feet away for 20 seconds.

2. Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

Farsightedness, medically known as hyperopia, is a common visual impairment where near objects become blurry while those at a distance remain clear. This condition often results from a shorter-than-normal eyeball or insufficient curvature of the cornea.

Temporary Solutions for Hyperopia

Eyeglasses: Robust frames and lenses not only correct farsightedness but also safeguard your eyes from potential injuries.

Contact Lenses: A convenient, glasses-free option for managing hyperopia.

Permanent Correction of Farsightedness

Advancements in medical technology have made it possible to permanently correct farsightedness. The two prominent laser eye surgeries for this purpose are Femto LASIK and PRK.

Preventing Farsightedness

While congenital hyperopia cannot be completely prevented, early detection is key. It's advisable for parents to arrange regular ophthalmologist visits for their children. This is crucial, as individuals with innate farsightedness are more susceptible to other eye-related issues, such as cataracts. Regular annual eye examinations are recommended.

3. Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a common vision condition characterised by a refractive error, leading to blurred vision at any distance. This condition arises when the cornea or lens of the eye has an irregular curvature, disrupting the way light focuses on the retina. This irregularity can cause both near and far objects to appear blurry or distorted. Often, astigmatism coexists with other refractive errors like myopia (nearsightedness) or hyperopia (farsightedness).

Non-Permanent Solutions for Astigmatism

To correct astigmatism temporarily, there are a couple of options:

  • Eyeglasses with Cylindrical Lenses: Specifically designed to counteract the effects of astigmatism.
  • Contact Lenses for Astigmatism: These are tailor-made contacts that address the unique curvature caused by astigmatism.

Permanent Correction of Astigmatism

For a long-lasting solution, astigmatism can be treated through vision correction surgeries. Notably, there are three primary types of laser eye surgeries suitable for astigmatism and nearsightedness:

  2. FemtoLASIK
  3. PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy)

Preventing Astigmatism from Worsening

While it's not possible to prevent astigmatism, certain practises can help reduce the risk of its progression:

  • Ensure sufficient and proper lighting to maintain eye health.
  • Limit prolonged visual activities like computer use, watching TV, or reading, and remember to rest your eyes regularly.
  • Avoid rubbing your eyes to prevent potential corneal damage.
  • Consume a diet rich in vitamins A, C, and E, and nutrients like lutein and Zeaxanthin, which are vital for eye health. Foods like green leafy vegetables and fruits are excellent choices.

4. Age-Related Farsightedness (Presbyopia)

Presbyopia, commonly known as age-related farsightedness, is a natural decline in the eyes' ability to focus on close objects. This condition, primarily linked to ageing and the stiffening of the eye's lens, typically begins to manifest around the age of 40.

Options for Managing Presbyopia

Non-permanent solutions for presbyopia include various types of eyeglasses, such as bifocals, trifocals, and progressive lenses, designed to enhance near vision. Additionally, different styles of contact lenses, including bifocal and multifocal variants, offer an alternative to glasses.

Advanced Techniques for Permanent Correction of Presbyopia

For a long-lasting solution, monovision, a method where one eye is adjusted for distance and the other for near vision, presents an effective approach. This technique, achievable through either contact lenses or laser eye surgeries like ZEISS SMILE, Femtosecond LASIK, or PRK, allows for clear vision at all distances.

Preventive Measures and Lifestyle Choices to Support Eye Health

Although presbyopia is inevitable with age, maintaining overall eye health can help mitigate its impact. Key strategies include:

  • Ensuring sufficient lighting for activities
  • Consuming a diet rich in eye-beneficial nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, E, lutein, and Zeaxanthin, found in leafy greens and fruits
  • Wearing protective sunglasses during outdoor activities
  • Staying hydrated
  • Avoiding smoking and moderating alcohol intake
  • Engaging in regular exercise
  • Managing chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension that could impair vision
  • Scheduling yearly eye examinations for early detection and management of potential eye conditions