Vertigo is often described as a sensation where one feels as though their surroundings are spinning, tilting, or moving. This can result in dizziness, instability, and a loss of balance, potentially leading to accidents.

What Causes Vertigo?

Vertigo typically stems from issues within the inner ear. Common causes include:

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV), a disorder of the vestibular system in the inner ear.
  • Meniere’s Disease, characterised by excessive fluid in the inner ear.
  • Vestibular Neuronitis, involving inflammation of the inner ear or the nerve connecting it to the brain.
  • Labyrinthitis, or inflammation of the inner ear.
  • Acoustic Neuroma, a tumour in the canal linking the brain and inner ear.
  • Fractures in the temporal bone.


The main symptoms of vertigo include dizziness and a loss of balance, similar to motion sickness. These symptoms can appear intermittently. Other indicators are:

  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Feeling lightheaded.
  • Ear pressure, ringing, or hearing loss.
  • Blurred vision during movement.

Diagnosing Vertigo

Diagnosing vertigo involves:

  • Reviewing symptom history and any occurrences of dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and hearing issues.
  • Checking medical history for ear disorders, injuries, surgeries, or medications.
  • Conducting physical and ear examinations.
  • Testing nerve and balance systems.
  • Assessing eye movements.
  • Performing additional tests for inner ear function, such as Audiograms, Videonystagmography (VNG), Electrocochleography (ECOG), Evoke Response Audiometry, Posturography, and specialised imaging (CT or MRI scans) for detecting brain tumours.

Treatment Options

Treatment for vertigo depends on its cause. Doctors will tailor treatment plans to each patient's diagnosis.

Self-Care Tips

To manage vertigo, consider:

  • Avoiding rapid head movements, bending, or twisting the neck.
  • Reducing or eliminating cigarette and caffeine intake.
  • Steering clear of stress, allergens, and insufficient sleep.
  • Avoiding driving or climbing to prevent accidents.